Friday, May 19, 2017

Gedmatch Segment Triangulation Bar Chart

This is pretty simple.
Across the top of your chart you have header

You can see all the contact information for those in your possible triangulated groups.

I recommend you add one column to your spreadsheet so you can enter the name of the common ancestor you share with your match.

The segment bar chart (as the tree graphic) include only a portion of the people you match. (This is a Beta tool.)

Pretend you are looking at a ruler with a segment laying on top. This ruler is divided into centemorgans (cM). The "from" and "to"  is the position where you and your matches measurement starts and ends.
To get a better idea you can reduce the view size of your page.
 Fig. 1

Every Match with overlapping segments in a TG will have a Common Ancestor – an ancestor who passed the DNA segment to each of them. Which ancestor you all share is determined by genealogy.-Jim Bartlett

The gray areas indicate a break where a new chromosome begins.

Where you see well aligned bars indicates common ancestors. 

If you are new to triangulation, you should focus on those matches who share a 15 cM size or larger.
You often share different segments on different chromosomes with matches as you "climb" your trees. Each shared segment will represent a different common ancestor or set of grandparents. 

Contact those who overlap and share trees. Collaborate if you see who they need to add to connect with you.

When combining triangulation with a specific surname project, triangulation becomes a process of elimination. You confirm other branches of your tree as you search for those in your surname project. It is beneficial for everyone within the surname project to compare their Gedmatch Kit numbers to see where (if at all) they relate to others in the project. Not all cousins will match each other. Some will.

An example might be if you share atDNA with a cousin who descends from a common couple.

As an example I will use my fifth great-grandparents,  Hugh and Hannah (McCormick) Brady.

One match may descend from their daughter Mary and another may descend through Samuel, another through Ebenezer. Your most common ancestors with whom you share DNA is going to be Hugh or Hannah. Three cousins from different children's lines who match on the same place on the same chromosome confirm Hugh and Hannah as your common grandparents using atDNA. 

Now, do a surname search at your testing company, in this case search for McCormick. Can you find a McCormick who matches you and a known Brady cousin on this or another segment? This will help you figure out what piece of a chromosome is from Hugh and which part is from Hannah.

Begin sending emails to those people whose segments overlap yours and find out who your common matches are.

Happy Finding!

Friday, May 12, 2017

Gedmatch: Something Every Adoptee Should Know and Great Hint for Triangulation Groups

Administrators of Multiple Accounts on Gedmatch Are Important

A great way to find administrators: On your One-to Many page, click on the up/down arrows at the top of the email column, this will sort email contacts in alphabetical order. You will be able to identify administrators immediately. They will be tied to multiple kits and all will have the same email address.

These are people you want to be on good terms with. They often (not always) manage kits for people that share the same ancestor. It is always important to make sure you provide a kit number and user name when communicating with them, as well as results you have made of one-to-one comparison for the kit. (You can copy and paste this comparison information into an email.) Administrators are busy; if you don’t provide this information, they may not reply. They are very focused people. AND they are often people with answers.
Many people who administer multiple accounts are already working with adoptees. Don't be afraid to let them know if you are adopted. They may add you to their comparison lists. Who you relate to could be the break they need to solve multiple mysteries.
Genetic genealogy is how some of them earn a living, so time is money. Avoid chit-chat in your communication. On the other hand, they may be a relative managing for family. They will often let you know in their email reply. Then-- you can chit-chat.
Also, if you conduct a Ctrl+F search and enter the letters DD in a search box, you will find people who have DD at the beginning of their user name. (Skip the Eddies.) This means they are either a seasoned DNA Detective, or they are relatively new to genetic genealogy, and learning. Many are adoptees who WELCOME any assistance you can provide. DD's are always Adoptee Friendly.
Don't hesitate to contact DD's with any information you have as soon as their DD username turns up in a triangulation or segment analysis. 
Adoptees will benefit by offering to check suspected common ancestor names by testing them in their Mirror Trees. If they don't offer ask them to help by doing this. (They will know what you mean even if you don't)
Always share your trees with DD's.



Thursday, May 11, 2017

Game Your Tree with Facebook and Ancestry

The term game means to do something fun and challenging.

I've really been thinking about how the DNA testing companies will soon find ways to more accurately link genetic cousins within well researched trees.

A major stumbling block is the sincerely believed, but wrongly sourced data. Next, are the challenges with adoption, not parent expected, foundlings and donors. How does a company solve these problems to reach that goal?

Ancestry, in a brilliant marketing move, is already doing just that.

The We're Related application released a few months ago, can be played on cell phones and tablets. The game checks to see if and how your are related to movie, music, sport, and political celebrities. And, Ancestry has linked with Facebook to make it an even more dynamic game.

Some people worried that the game would perpetuate the copying of bad trees. Indeed, there were some discouraging reviews. Unless Ancestry isn't as smart as I think it is, We're Related is designed to do exactly the opposite.

I theorize, the game is designed to help Ancestry target incorrect data within their database with the help of the genealogical community.

I have no doubt once a line is thumbed down a few times, Ancestry will no longer use that particular line to make game connections. The information gathered will help refine their atDNA match algorithms at the same time. The more refined both the Ancestry and AncestryDNA's database, the better connections for everyone.

Test my theory by playing along and checking back at a later date to see if your "bad" link to a certain person has changed.

The game will actually assist you in finding more cousins. You use it to your benefit.

How-to Play

Download the application (HERE)
  1. Enter two to three generations of your direct line. (You can keep it private, but others don't benefit from studying your linage.)
  2. Play the game
  • If the line they provide is one of those "bad ones," Give it a Thumbs Down 
  • If your line is personally well sourced, and the line they provide matches with yours, Give it a thumbs up.
  • Link to your celebrity match. I can assure you, if Ancestry is using celebrities, they have made sure of their evidence. If you feel you must, the sourcing of celebrities. If you agree the line is valid, add the celebrity to your tree. (What fun when others want to look at your tree!)
  • To Benefit YOU: Your are often provided clues that will take your tree lines back further than you currently have them built. 
  • Don't give a thumbs up or thumbs down. Study the clues Ancestry has provided, and see if you can find verified sources to validate. 
  • Only give it a thumbs-up once you have sourced and validated the information they offer.
  • Add these new ancestors to your tree.

Because Ancestry has linked with Facebook, you can also find out if you are related to people in your Facebook friends list. Many of my "friends" are already listed as relatives.

Again, follow the same steps and add your Facebook friends to your tree once you verify they are related to you.
Today the game offered me a cousin match to someone I very recently met. We have several things in common, among them, wanting to learn more about the tools available to find ancestors using atDNA. 
I envision a time in the not too distant future when Facebook expands your relationship choices beyond only family, to a finer subset, be it grandparent, parent, child, aunt, uncle, sister, brother, half-sib, or box in which you can enter: 7c1x.

Perhaps once we recognize .....

Wednesday, May 10, 2017

Understanding Gedmatch: One-to-Many Matches

In my opinion, (I have watched many), the following link will take you to the best explanation of the what you are looking at on the Gedmatch "One-to-Many" page. This video also shows clues about determining relationship based on amount of shared DNA. Time to watch, 3 min 44 seconds. Click here.

Gedmatch Triangulation Tree Graphic: What the Heck Am I Looking At?

Attention Brady Project members: You will find this on page two of your Workbooks. See if you recognize a kit number that matches your Brady kit # list. If you recognize a known Brady cousin whose is not a member of the Brady Project, please contact them and ask them to join. The "user look up" tool mentioned in this blog will provide their contact email. (They can also be found on your one-to-many page by using Ctl+F and entering their Gedmatch kit #.)

For those who are reading from outside U.S. The use of the # means number. When referring to a Gedmatch # I mean the Kit + the alphabet letter designating what testing company was used, and the numbers that follow.

In January 2017, after three years of crossing my eyes trying understand autosomal DNA (All the blogs were over my head), the writers were speaking a language I didn’t understand. I was figuring how to use the interface at Ancestry and Ftdna, but had no idea what I was seeing. I knew which buttons to push on Gedmatch. I saw loads of stuff, saved much to folders, knew it was important, but was unable to put it all together in my head. Then I came across Jim Bartlett’s blog, Segment-ology. He teaches how triangulated groups work. I dug deep and donated $10 to check out the Tier 1 triangulation tools. It took me a month to even start to understand what I was looking at. I opted for another month. I began to get excited.

Word to learn=segment. A segment is a measured piece of your DNA.

 I started with Triangulation Groups Beta.

After I enter my Gedmatch # and wait about 14 minutes (I used the time to put in a load of laundry and wipe down the counters in the kitchen), a screen appears asking me what I want to see first: triangulated segments in a bar chart, triangulation tree graphic or CSV file. I opted for the tree graphic. I am a visual learner. (In the graphic below I have blocked some of the info for privacy reasons).

I stared. Cocked my head to the right, then to the left. Scrolled up and down the page.

 What the heck am I looking at???

Your kit # shows as reference in a rectangle over a column on the left of the screen. There are more stacks of rectangles vertically down the left of the page. Kind of like the trunk of a tree. 
The match in the lower box is in a different TG and only matches with others who share the same spot as highlighted on Chr 1 
Inside the trunk are more rectangular boxes that contain bold black lines. Each bold line represents a chromosome. Only Chrs 1-22 are represented in the box. (The X chromosome in not represented in triangulation because it doesn’t behave like other chromosomes. Scientists are still trying to figure out why and what it means.)  There are places on the chromosomes highlighted with spots that are green. A Chr number is written in the box. There is also a TG (triangulated group) identifying number in the box. The TG represents a position on that chromosome where you and at least two other people share DNA in the same spot.

To the left of the graphic tree is a blue line reaching out. It represents a tree branch and leads to another rectangle. This box contains your matches information: Kit #, user name, the Chr on which you both share the largest segment and the size of that segment. 

Some of your matches share DNA with you on more than one chromosome. When this happens the graphic will show more than one green highlight in the box. This indicates the other places they share DNA segments with you.

If there is a little tree icon in box of the match person on your branch, it means there is a (gedcom) tree in the Gedmatch database that can be reviewed and it links to this person. (You can find the gedcom number by using "user look up" in association with their Gedmatch #. "User look up" is found on the first page of your Gedmatch account, on the left hand side of the page, in the box under the heading Learn More.)

The position of blue line leading to the rectangles to the right of your chromosome tree is important.

If the blue lines connect several boxes in a straight line stretching to the right, you will notice these matches share only one segment with you, and it is in the same position on the same chromosome.

In some cases, the blue line jogs down from one box another. If you compare the green highlights in the chromosome boxes in the tree trunk, you will notice more than one highlight in the upper chromosome box and the match beneath shares a different segment in common with the reference (person who is trunk of the tree). On the right the person in the branch above and the person who jogs down the branch are related to each other. (

Study the user names and Kit# in the rectangles. Do you recognize any of them? If you have already made a connection with one of the people linked to you in this tree, the others that connect to them will share the same common ancestor (CA). BE CAREFUL. IT MAY NOT BE WHO YOU THINK. All people have to verify the same common ancestor in their tree. In some cases you may have to help them find missing family in order to make the connection.

It may lead to a person further back in your tree. For instance, my cousin, (I'll call her Clair) shares a common set of grandparents with me. They are William B. Brady and Catherine Wakefield. Clair descends through one of their children, I descend through another one of their children.  There is a third person in this graphic tree that connects with Clair and me. I'll call him Sam. Sam is the key to our common ancestor who gave all of us the piece of shared DNA in green. He may share DNA with someone higher up in the Brady or Wakefield line. It could be an ancestor I don't even have on my tree yet. I will have to study Sam's tree to find the common ancestor we all share.

It has been suggested by another genetic genealogist, the numbers at the bottom of the rectangle of known matches is due to the Beta nature of the program and does not relate to triangulation.

I have updated this post. I previously referred to a TG as a Target Group. That is because these are the people I "target" with emails to see if we really do triangulate to a common ancestor. 

Hopefully this post will give you an idea of what the heck you are looking at when you study the Triangulation Tree Graphic.

Monday, May 8, 2017

Easy Peasy Spreadsheets

There was a time when the thought of using a spreadsheet sent chills along my spine. I took a college course in Excel and struggled. And to be honest, the professor knew less than I did about how to use this fabulous tool. He simply came in and said, "When you complete your assignment, you can leave.”

I couldn’t find the right buttons to push; the terms and names of things left me staring at the computer screen in confusion. Some of the symbols are in Greek. (I don’t read Greek.) There I'd be, still be on step one and everyone else had left the room. The professor was required to stay as long as I was there. I think maybe someone was afraid I would walk off with a computer. Have you ever heard an irritated sigh? 

Note: I have been told you can download and use OpenSource in place of Excel. 

Even with Excel you are going to have some visual alterations over what you see on a “live” Gedmatch page. (At least I do. If you know a trick; let me know.)

Spreadsheets are essential for doing triangulation and segmentations studies. If the fear of using them is holding you back, please, don’t let it.

I consider Jim Bartlett,* my mentor. When he suggested that I would benefit from using them, I swallowed hard and proceeded to Youtube and looked up “Excel basics.” I watched several short videos until I found one I could understand. (There is one; the voice isn’t in clearly understandable English (for me, an Okie with a twang). The guy has voice recognition software that has captioned what he is saying. I was laughing so hard I had tears running down my cheeks. The words in the captions aren’t right. Kind of like when you have mess ups on a Smartphone). Then again, if you watch it a couple of times, he explains spreadsheets quite well.)

These are expanded and illustrated instructions that I sent to those participating in a Brady Segment and Triangulation Project** when I sent them some spreadsheets:

Don’t worry about how to work with spreadsheets at this point. Look them over. Click on page names in the little tabs at the bottom of the workbook and look at what they show. Just understand:
  • Cells are all the little rectangles
  • Rows are numbered and go horizontally across the page.
  • Columns are identified by alphabet letters and go vertically down the page.
The highlighted cell in the picture below is in row 1 column A. 

If you want to copy and paste a whole page of something into a spread sheet, click Ctrl+A, copy, open a new spreadsheet and click that little box with the triangle at the junction of 1 and A (it will highlight the whole page) right click paste and the screen will fill with whatever you copied. 

This is the process you go through when you download data from Gedmatch Tier 1 tools. I would suggest using each tool and downloading the on separate pages

Got that? You’re good to go. (Youtube search spreadsheet basics if you don’t “get it”.)

If you think you have messed something up, click the little swoopy arrow that means “undo” in the upper left corner of the spreadsheet. Everything will go back to how it was to before you messed up. (Sometimes I really mess up and have to hit the swoopy arrow several times.)

To change the width of your column:
(this from Catherine Hughes,genetic genealogist and software trainer who is a member of FB group Genetic Genealogy Tips and Techniques)

  1. Position your mouse between the letters at the top of the relevant columns so the double-headed arrow appears.
  2. Double-click and Excel (and most other spreadsheet packages) will automatically adjust the width of the column to the left so all the data within the column is displayed.

To insert columns:

1     Select the column heading to the right of where you want the new column to appear. For example, if you want to insert a column between columns D and E, select column E. ...
  1.   Right click your mouse and select insert column  
  2.   The new column will appear to the left of the selected column.
  3.   Or, Select the column heading to the right of where you want the new column,     
  4.   Click the Insert command on the Home tab.

The pages in a spreadsheet are called sheets. To give them a name double click on the

 Basically, that's got you covered. When you want to get fancy; watch some Youtube videos.

Oh, and click save. Always click save!

P.S. If you lose your spreadsheet (I really did--- I had it on my desktop and stuck in in an obscure folder by mistake) if you click the little search ball in the very lower left of your screen to get to search; type .xls in the search bar and you can find it.  Thank you, son!

*Jim Bartlett has the awesome blog: Segment-ology. Click here to read. Start with his very first post.

**For those of you with the Brady surname in your tree, if you want to participate in The Brady Segment Analysis and Triangulation Study contact me via my WikiTree Shoff-7. profile here. Click on the little email link next to my name that says send a private message. 

Though Brady Project focuses on pioneer immigrants Hugh and Hannah (McCormick) Brady who arrived in the colonies in 1730’s, this project is open to all Bradys. You never know how you will find a cousin!

Saturday, May 6, 2017

New Email TG Contact Template for Genetic Genealogists (Less Gets More Version)

You would think I would know better. I blunder

Some awesome genetic genealogists on a group I am honored to be a member of, suggested I use a shorter initial contact letter. The results are outstanding. Though the first letter drew many replies, they all were asking for more information that necessitated rather lengthy replies. This message cuts to the chase. Almost all who reply have sent a link, or invite me to view their tree within 48 hours. Thanks everyone at Genetic Genealogy Tips & Techniques Facebook group for your wisdom and guidance.

Please feel free to copy this very simple template to use for your emails. Personalize as indicated to save time when reaching out to people in your target and triangulation groups.

Email subject line: Gedmatch Match

Hello (insert Gedmatch user name), 
Re: Kit Number:

I notice we have a match on Gedmatch. I did a one-to-one to make sure. 

I was hoping we could compare our trees to determine who our common ancestor might be. 

I am attaching a two charts that might help us figure this out. 

I look forward to hearing back from you.

Your name
Your Gedmatch Kit number
Your email
Adoptee Friendly 

To copy this chart for future use and to use as an attachment: place your cursor over the image, right click, save as: Blaine T Bettinger Chart

Save this chart created by DNA Detective, Christa Stalcup for future use and as attachment.

You may want to create your own letter.

When you provide these charts as attachments you are giving the recipient some very vital educational tools they can use in their genetic genealogy research. When you give, you receive.

Regardless, all communications with matches on Gedmatch should contain at the very least: Gedmatch Kit number, verification you have done a one-on-one comparison, your Gedmatch number, your contact information.

This is ultra important because some emails go to an administrator who tracks multiple kits. They need information about which kit you are referring to. If the administrator of the kit is a genetic genealogist doing segment studies, they may run your Gedmatch number and know immediately who your common ancestor (CA) is.

I include the words "Adoptee Friendly" in my signature because many people who are adopted are afraid they will be rejected. Unfortunately, some genealogists don't want to deal with adoptees. I don't know if they are afraid of finding skeletons in their family tree, or they don't want to "waste their time" with someone who can't provide a tree for them to look at.

Know all those people who don't have a tree posted on the site you tested? Chances are, many of them are adopted and looking for family. And they are YOUR family. Please, embrace them.

I get a rush any time I can help an adoptee find family. Triangulation and segment studies are one way for them to do this.

When doing triangulations, someone who is adopted can be the most valuable person you have in your triangulation group. If they are doing a Mirror Tree on AncestryDNA, they can use their knowledge of this technique to lead the triangulation group in the right direction. Pray for adoptees in your TG's.

The Bettinger Chart is an invaluable tool for all genetic genealogists (many have it memorized). Blaine T. Bettinger is recognized worldwide as one the foremost genetic genealogists. His book, The Family Tree Guide to DNA Testing and Genetic Genealogy is a best seller. Buy it. Read it. If you are on a strict budget, like me, check it out at your local library. (The only problem with checking it out at the library is they don't like you to underline and dog-ear.)

Jim Bartlett's, Segment-ology is a wonderful educational "how-to" blog on segment studies and triangulation. When I found Jim's blog it was like he kept turning up a dimmer switch in my head when it came to me understanding DNA and what studying segments and triangulation had to offer. I had to start at his very first blog post, because I can be a little slow on the uptake. The more I read, the more excited I got.

Note: Brady Surname Triangulation and Segment Analysis Project, this post is a tool for you. It will benefit you beyond our current Brady project. I will explain when and how to use it in a later post.

To all other readers, if you have a Brady surname in your tree, and want to join this project, contact me with your Gedmatch number, contact info, and the most distant person in your Brady line.

When I write of a TG it is interchangeable in my mind as the people in my triangulation group I target with emails. Triangulation Group = Target Group.

As always, I appreciate FB, Twitter and G+ shares.

Friday, May 5, 2017

Best AncestryDNA "To Do" List Before Gedmatch Triangulations

Spend time making notes in the note boxes of your matches. Click on their username to find the place to add notes. Include name of common ancestor or grandparents. Include the amount of dna you share by clicking on the little i above the note box and copy and paste the info into the note. Include your identified relationship and see how it compares to estimate charts. Send them a message and introduce yourself. This is family!
Add note icon to left, click on "I" for shared DNA

Make notes of discrepancies. Over average, under average?
Thank you Blaine T. Bettinger for making this chart of averages and ranges
Get a dialogue going with your cousin, aunt, uncle, grandma.
Send off a message and ask them if they have a Gedmatch #. When they send you their kit #, add it to the note box and to a list you make on a word doc or spreadsheet with their username, common ancestor (CA) and Gedmatch #, and your relationship. These people are part of your own flesh and blood. Part of them is in your every cell.

Using your Gedmatch number and theirs do a one-to-one compare on Gedmatch. Copy and paste comparison in a sticky note.
Send a reply message and tell them you want to send them an email so you can send them the info. When they send you their email add it to your data collection then copy and paste the information from the sticky note and send it to them. By following these steps you set up more personal communication for information exchanges.

If they respond they don't have Gedmatch# and ask what Gedmatch is, tell them it's a free site where they can make more matches from other companies. Suggest they watch Gedmatch Basics on Youtube to learn how to upload. Tell them you would like to see exactly how you match. When they write you back with their Gedmatch # ask for their email so you can send them the results of the comparison. Add their email and kit 3 to your spreadsheet.
The point is to build a relationship and information exchange. These are your cousins, add some personal information to your communications. Become friends. Ask if the are on Facebook.
(My 1c1x, half my age, found a friend who appears to be related to one of my surname lines all because of Brad Pitt. --A future post.-- We haven't proven it yet via DNA, but my cousin's friend is now a FB friend.)
Create lists in your email of choice. Make cousin lists sorted by common ancestor surnames. Let them know when you find a new cousin. Not all will match by DNA. You have a genetic tree and a paper trail tree; all are family.

Next, spend some time checking the shared matches of everyone you have made notes for. Check the notes you have made for those in the shared match list to see if everyone connects to the same CA or couple. This will give you an to opportunity to write those without trees and let them know who it appears MIGHT be a common ancestor or set of grandparents. Again, ask them to upload to Gedmatch to see if you can confirm. Ask for an invite to see their tree if it's private. Run their kit # against yours and a known cousin match. See if you all match on the same chromosome. You might not. They may share DNA in a different spot. Tell them the results. Make a note in your spreadsheet or list on your Word document.

Look at shared surnames and see if they have the name you have identified for your shared match. Maybe they have the surname, but the person is a sibling of your match. Maybe they have a grandparent listed you haven't discovered. They might take you further up your tree. See it you can figure it out; if you can, send them a message. If you can’t, ask them for their Gedmatch #. Repeat scenarios above as needed.

 Once you start doing triangulations you can check your collected kit # 's and emails against your segment and triangulation sheets.
Genealogy is meeting new cousins and collaborating. It's about helping each other, because--- when you help them--- karma happens.

Sunday, April 30, 2017

Genealogy: Some Brady Surname Clues and Sources

This blog is to help all genealogists, like me, who blunder around until they learn how to accomplish their goals. If you are following this blog and have a Brady surname in your line, contact me to join the Brady Triangulation and Segment Study Project. You can reach me through my WikiTree profile Shoff-7 or on Facebook. 

If you don’t have a Brady surname, feel free to follow this blog and learn my blundering tips and tricks for plain old genealogy and also learn about how to do your own triangulation and segment studies. Over the next few posts, I will be using the Brady surname. You can use any name you want for yourself.

If you have already joined the Brady Triangulation and Segment Study Project (BTSSP), please sign-up to follow this blog. (See sign up in far right column.) Posts on this blog will be my major way of keeping you up-to-date on the training and sharing for this project. For privacy purposes, I will also be contacting you via email with specific personal information.

If you think you might be related to this awesome immigrant family of Hugh and Hannah Brady (we have Revolutionary War heroes), ask to join us on our Facebook page, Descendants of Hugh and Hannah (McCormick) Brady.

The title of this post includes the Brady surname. We Bradys are a determined bunch. We do not give up easily. Some people call us stubborn. I prefer to call it perseverance.

I am one via my great-grandmother Jemima R. Brady, (she married a Mott), and is the daughter of William B.(for blacksmith, I think) Brady and Catherine Wakefield. William B. is the son of John Simonton Brady, son of Samuel Brady b. 1734, who was the son of Hugh and Hannah Brady. I would have added Hannah’s last name is McCormick, but some researchers don’t feel that fact has been adequately proven. This is one of the many mysteries I hope to clear up using autosomal DNA segment studies and triangulation. Did Hugh have brothers who came over with him we don’t know about? Can we definitively prove his parentage by adding autosomal tests to our arsenal of tools?

DNA studies have been evolving over the last few years. There are new and different Y-DNA tests, for males to prove paternal lines. What about mutations? There is mtDNA to prove maternal lines. (This works for both men and women). Those tests are great, BUT...

We are working with autosomal or atDNA. (Think AncestryDNA, FamilyFinder on FTDNA, Ancestry on 23andMe—as well as some from a few newcomer companies.)

Autosomal DNA works for everyone—if they work it. You don’t have to understand it (it helps) to make it work. AtDNA isn’t going to automatically create a family tree. You still have to add family names and profile information. But programs can come close (especially at AncestryDNA). And if you use WikiTree for building a tree, (it’s a cousin collaboration site so you often only need to add your own specific line and resources. On WikiTree you can also improve everyone else’s entries with more source information.) atDNA testing is simply a tool to help genealogists knock down walls and find family more easily. If you haven’t taken a test, you can easily do an internet search to find which testing company is right for you. The cost starts at about $79, depending on which company you chose. (See my post “Cousin Bait” to learn how to save $$).

You will also need to upload your autosomal results to Gedmatch. (See post, "I Am So Confused.")

One of the most important things you do in genealogy is to source your tree. This means finding things like census records, birth and death certificates, legal records and books that contain information and clues about your family. It is recommended to have at least two sources for each person in your tree. More is always better. If you are a Brady, you want to make sure you have the right Samuel, John, Hugh, Margaret, Mary, Joseph, James, Ebenezer, William or Patrick. (I know, the Patrick---this is a project for ALL Bradys who want to participate and there are a load of Patricks out there!)

To use the info on this blog as a resource that will guide you to an actual source, just copy and paste to your tree information and link validating information.

I will be posting a future blog on Sourcing Made Easy. (I cheat.)

What I did to provide this information was pretty darn easy. I used only ONE online search program that works especially well for obtaining information on colonial era ancestors. It is called Genealogy Gophers. It’s free. I’m big on free.

You can access Genealogy Gophers here. All you have to do is fill in the search bars (sometimes less gets more). I recommend using dates such as 1709-1780 when searching a particular Brady. I often use birth and death dates for each different person I am searching. It helps eliminate wrong hits; if you can add a geographic location, even better. If the person is elusive; try the less is more rule. Many Bradys have a bit of wonderlust. I think it may be a genetic trait in some lines.

Because I have listed this information here, if you want to go directly to it and read it; copy the title and author information, and paste it in any browser search bar. (Omit my italicized description line). Many of these books can be downloaded to your computer at no charge. If you download in PDF format, you can use the search tool to look for possible associated names. I think it’s interesting to look at the dates when the information was gathered. The contributors were often genealogists. Keep in mind, genealogists (as well as census takers) do make mistakes. A few below are actual sources (records by the government or in courts are many of your best bets).

In a couple of places below I have done a screenshot copy and paste of what I have found beneath the source information.*

Did you know--if the copy seems to small to read, you can hold down your control button and scroll mouse up or down to increase and decrease font size?


Papers read before the Kittochtinny Historical Society..
Author Kittochtinny Historical Society
Pages 724
Language eng
Publisher Chambersburg, Pa. : Kittochtinny Historical Society
Date 1899
Location Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center
Description Papers for 1908/10-1910/12 include a general index of all Papers published since the organization of the society; v. 1, February 1899 to February 1901 -- v. 2, March 1901-February 1903 -- v.3, March 1903 to February 1905 --v. 4 March 1905-February 1908 -- v. 12. October, 1939 to March, 1949 -- v. 14. October, 1957 to April 1963 -- v. 15. May, 1963 to February, 1970 -- v. 16. May, 1970 to April, 1978 -- v. 17. October, 1978 to May, 1981 -- v. 20. September, 1988 to February, 1998; 16

Mentions John and Samuel (pg. 313)
State-book of Pennsylvania; containing an account of the geography, history, government, resources, and noted citizens of the state, with a map of the state and of each county
Author Burrowes, Thomas H.
Pages 212
Language English;eng;en
Location Mid-Continent Public Library
Subject Pennsylvania - History;
Description "A book calculated to impart to our youth a full and accurate knowledge of their own state ... "-- Preface.

Dod's peerage, baronetage and knightage of Great Britain and Ireland for ..., including all the titled classes
Pages 1,448
Language eng
Publisher London : Simkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent
Date 1914
Location Internet Archive
Description Description based on: 1908; Later editions have publication statement: Published for Dod's Peerage by Simkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent; Some editions bear title: Dod's peerage, baronetage, knightage, etc. of Great Britain and Ireland; Original 1908 edition from the Library of Dr Joseph L Druse

Battle of Brandywine. Begin page 65 for Brady names
Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania
Author Shenk, Hiram H. (Hiram Herr), 1872-1954; Shenk, Esther
Pages 598
English; eng; en
Location Genealogical Society of Utah d.b.a FamilySearch;
Subject Pennsylvania - History; Pennsylvania - Biography; Pennsylvania - Almanacs; Pennsylvania - Encyclopedias and dictionaries;
Description Compiled family history.

History of the families of McKinney - Brady – Quigley
Author Swope, Belle McKinney Hays, b. 1867; Linn, John Blair, 1831-1899
Pages 342
Language English; eng; en
Location Genealogical Society of Utah d.b.a FamilySearch;
Subject Brady family; McCord family; MacKenzie family; McKinney family; MacKinzie family; Quigley family; Robinson family; Rodgers family; Piatt family;
Description Joseph MacKenzie, of Scottish descent, was born in Ireland and immigrated about 1750 to Hopewell Township, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania. "The name was changed from MacKenzie or MacKinzie to McKinney ..." by him, as shown by the signature on his will of 1785. Pages i-xvi: "Oration at Muncy, Pennsylvania, October 15, 1879 [at unveiling of monument to Captain John Brady] by Hon. John Blair Linn." Includes index.

For Brady info look on pg. 71
Everton's genealogical helper - v. 16, no. 3 Sep 1962
Pages 160
Language English;eng;en
Location Ogden Utah FamilySearch Library, FamilySearch International;
Subject Utah - Genealogy - Periodicals; Genealogy - Methodology - Periodicals; United States - Genealogy - Periodicals; Genealogy - Periodicals;

The abridged compendium of American genealogy : first families of America : a genealogical encyclopedia of the United States; v. 03
Author Virkus, Frederick Adams
Pages 813
Language English;eng;en
Location St. George FamilySearch Library; FamilySearch International;
SubjectUnited States - Biography; United States - Genealogy;


Info about family of Captain Samuel Brady (page 654)
A history of Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania : from its first beginnings to the present time, including chapters of newly discovered early Wyoming Valley history, together with many biographical sketches and much genealogical material, Vol. 2
Author Harvey, Oscar Jewell, 1851-1922
Pages 641
Language English; eng; en
Location Genealogical Society of Utah d.b.a FamilySearch;
Subject Pennsylvania, Luzerne, Wilkes-Barre - History; Pennsylvania, Luzerne, Wilkes-Barre - Biography;
Description Compiled family history.

Hugh Brady page 785
An illustrated history of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania : civil, political and military, from its earliest settlement to the present time, including historical descriptions of each county in the state, their towns, and industrial resources
Author Egle, William Henry, 1830-1901
Pages 1,186
Language English; eng; en
Location Allen County Public Library;
Subject Pennsylvania - History;
Description Compiled local and family histories from Allen County Public Libraries

Listing of Brady Land Warrants
Pennsylvania archives. Third series V.24
Pages 801
Language English; eng; en
Location Mid-Continent Public Library,

Not sure if this is connected to our Hugh and Hannah Brady, but it is a Hugh Brady in Va, 1720.
Encyclopedia of American biography. New Series, Vol. 5
Pages 664
Language English; eng; en
Location Genealogical Society of Utah d.b.a FamilySearch;
Subject United States - Biography; United States - Encyclopedias and dictionaries;

Elizabeth Brady Daughter of Hugh Brady and bro of Samuel Brady
American biography : a new cyclopedia, Vol. 40 pg. 150
Pages 490
Language English; eng; en
Publisher New York, New York : American Historical Society
Date 1916-1933
Location Genealogical Society of Utah d.b.a FamilySearch;
Subject United States - Biography; United States - Encyclopedias and dictionaries; United States Biography; United States Dictionaries; United States Encyclopedias;
Description Compiled family history. Cover title: Encyclopedia of American biography.

Hugh Brady and Hugh Y. Brady Last purchase warrants
Pennsylvania archives. Third series. V. 26
Author Hazard, Samuel, 1784-1870; Linn, John Blair, 1831-1899; Egle, William Henry, 1830-1901; Reed, George Edward, 1846-1930; Montgomery, Thomas Lynch, 1862-1983
Pages 912
Language English; eng; en
Publisher Digital images of original published: [S.l. : s.n.], 1852-1935 (Philadelphia : Joseph Severns). v. : fronts., ill., plates, ports., maps, facsims.
Location Houston Public Library - Clayton Library;
Subject Pennsylvania - History - Sources - Periodicals; Pennsylvania - History - 18th century; Pennsylvania - History - 19th century;
Description A collection of documents supplementing the companion series known as "Colonial records," which contain the Minutes of the Provincial council, of the Council of safety, and of the Supreme executive council of Pennsylvania. Compiled local and family histories from Clayton Library, Houston, Texas.

Monies due from Hugh Brady pg 670
Pennsylvania archives. Third series. V. 06
Author Hazard, Samuel, 1784-1870; Linn, John Blair, 1831-1899; Egle, William Henry, 1830-1901; Reed, George Edward, 1846-1930; Montgomery, Thomas Lynch, 1862-1963
Pages 793
Language English; eng; en
Publisher Digital images of original published: [S.l. : s.n.], 1852-1935 (Philadelphia : Joseph Severns). v. : fronts., ill., plates, ports., maps, facsims.
Location Houston Public Library - Clayton Library;
Subject Pennsylvania - History - Sources - Periodicals; Pennsylvania - History - 18th century; Pennsylvania - History - 19th century;
Description A collection of documents supplementing the companion series known as "Colonial records," which contain the Minutes of the Provincial council, of the Council of safety, and of the Supreme executive council of Pennsylvania. Compiled local and family histories from Clayton Library, Houston, Texas.

John Brady pg 717
History of Northumberland County, Pennsylvania : including its aboriginal history, the colonial and revolutionary periods ...
Author Bell, Herbert C. (Herbert Charles), 1868-;
Pages 1,264
Language English; eng; en
Publisher Chicago Ill. : Brown, Runk and Co.
Date 1891
Location Allen County Public Library;
Subject Pennsylvania, Northumberland - History; Pennsylvania, Northumberland - Biography; Bell, Herbert C. (Herbert Charles), 1868-; Northumberland County (Pa.) History; Northumberland County (Pa.) Biography;
Description Compiled local and family histories from Allen County Public Library. Includes index. Includes biographical sketches. "The Shamokin coal fields ... by J.J. John": p. 346-391.

Isabell Bradbeer pg 42
Lineage book V. 62
Author Daughters of the American Revolution
Pages 385
Language English; eng; en
Publisher Digital images of original published: [Washington, D.C. : The Society], 1896-1940 ; (Harrisburg, Pa. : Harrisburg Pub. Co.) 165 v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Location Houston Public Library - Clayton Library;
Subject Daughters of the American Revolution -- Membership;
Description Compiled local and family histories from Clayton Library, Houston, Texas.

Mrs Edna Craig Means pg 100
Lineage book V. 30
Author Daughters of the American Revolution
Pages 412
Language English; eng; en
Publisher Digital images of original published: [Washington, D.C. : The Society], 1896-1940 ; (Harrisburg, Pa. : Harrisburg Pub. Co.) 165 v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Location Houston Public Library - Clayton Library;
Subject Daughters of the American Revolution -- Membership;
Description Compiled local and family histories from Clayton Library, Houston, Texas.

Archibald Hanna, blacksmith  pg 343
Publications of the Genealogical Society of Pennsylvania, v. 5
Author Genealogical Society of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
Pages 534
Language English; eng; en
Location Allen County Public Library;
Subject Pennsylvania - Genealogy - Periodicals;
Description Generally three times a year. Most volumes contain indexes.

John and Capt. Samuel Brady, Mary Quigley pg. 272
Historical collections of the state of Pennsylvania : containing a copious selection of the most interesting facts, traditions biographical sketches, anecdotes, etc., relating to its history and antiquities, both general and local, with topogra; pt. 01
Author Day, Sherman
Pages 387
Language English;eng;en
Location Ogden Utah FamilySearch Library, FamilySearch International;
Subject United States, Pennsylvania - History;

Drouillard , Chambers, Culbertson
Lineage book
Author Daughters of the American Revolution. cn
Pages 430
Language eng
Publisher Washington, D.C. : The Society ; Harrisburg, Pa. : Harrisburg Pub. Co.
Date 1892
Location Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center
Description Vol. 1 (1890/91)-v. 40 (1902) in 1916; v. 41 (1902)-v. 80 (1910) in 1926; v. 81 (1910)-v. 120 (1915) in 1939; v. 121 (1916)-v. 160 (1920) in 1940; 16

Massacre at Standing Stone speaks of the Brady twins at the fort
Report of the Commission to locate the site of the frontier forts of Pennsylvania
Author Pennsylvania. Indian Forts Commission; Weiser, Jay Gilfillan; Albert, George Dallas
Pages 824
Language eng
Publisher[Harrisburg] : C. M. Busch, state printer
Date 1896
Location Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center
Description Some folded material in pocket; CLICK ON WEB ADDRESS TO REACH VOL. 1 OF THIS DOCUMENT; v. 2. The frontier forts of western Pennsylvania / by G.D. Albert; 16

My family had this chart blown up huge and it hung on our living room wall.
Chart of the descendants of Hugh Brady
Author Brady, William Young
Pages 5
Language English; eng; en
Location Allen County Public Library;
Subject Brady family; Dixon family; Hanna family; Justice family; McCune family; Piatt family; Work family;
Description Hugh Brady ( immigrated from Ireland to Delaware about 1732, married Hannah McCormack, and lived in Chester and Cumberland Counties, Delaware. Descendants and relatives lived in Delaware, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Illinois and elsewhere.

More Colonial Bradys
Simon,  Zebulon, John and Thomas pg 463
Grants of Vermont Territory by the government of New Hampshire
Author New Hampshire
Pages 804
Language English; eng; en
Location Genealogical Society of Utah d.b.a FamilySearch;
Subject Vermont - Land and property - History; New Hampshire - Land and property - History;
Description History of land that was granted to the Territory of Vermont by New Hampshire.

Joseph Brady
Revolutionary soldiers buried in Indiana, a supplement : 485 names not listed in the roster of soldiers and patriots of the American Revolution buried in Indiana (1938) nor in Revolutionary soldiers buried in Indiana (1949)
Author Waters, Margaret R. (Margaret Ruth), 1905-
Pages 167
Language English;eng;en
Location Logan Family History Center, FamilySearch International;
Subject Indiana - Military records;

Brady info pg .302
The Historical magazine and notes and queries concerning the antiquities, history and biography of America
Pages 422
Language eng
Publisher Morrisania, N.Y. [etc.] Henry B. Dawson [etc.]
Date 1857
Location Internet Archive
Description CLICK ON WEB ADDRESS TO REACH SELECTED VOLUMES; Vols. 11-20 called 2d ser., v. 1-10; Vols. 21-23 called 3d ser., v. 1-3; Publication suspended Sept.-Dec. 1871; Publication suspended Apr. 1872-Mar. 1873; No regular numbers from Apr. 1874-Mar. 1875; Extra numbers published in Mar. and Dec. 1874, Jan., Mar. and May 1875; Supplementary numbers were issued with v. 10, no. 7-12; Some issues have been photocopied for preservation purposes; 16

A good video to watch on sourcing. This is NOT me. The Barefoot Genealogist gets paid.

* How to do a screenshot. If you look over above the numbers on the right hand side of your keyboard (on most computers), you will see a key that has the words "Print Screen." When you press this button it takes a picture of what is on your computer screen. (You don't see anything yet, trust me, it's there.) Next, open your Paint program. You will see a little clipboard on the upper left. Click paste. You can save the entire picture of your screen, or you can crop to only get a picture of what you want. To crop, click select, rectangle. Now draw a rectangle around what you want, click save, give it a name. You can add this info like a photograph to your sources.

I shared this because I spent hours blundering around until I figured out how to do it.

BTW you know that tab that sticks out at the top of your screen to the right of the page you're on? If you click it, it opens another search screen. Don't laugh. I PAID a teenager to give me computer lessons. That one revelation was worth every penny! (I had been opening entirely different browsers to find different things.)